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Resource

Bash Commands

  • uname -a
  • Show system and kernel
  • head -n1 /etc/issue
  • Show distri-bution
  • mount
  • Show mounted filesy-stems
  • date
  • Show system date
  • uptime
  • Show uptime
  • whoami
  • Show your username
  • man command
  • Show manual for command

Bash Shortcuts

  • CTRL-c
  • Stop current command
  • CTRL-z
  • Sleep program
  • CTRL-a
  • Go to start of line
  • CTRL-e
  • Go to end of line
  • CTRL-u
  • Cut from start of line
  • CTRL-k
  • Cut to end of line
  • CTRL-r
  • Search history
  • !!
  • Repeat last command
  • !abc
  • Run last command starting with abc
  • !abc:p
  • Print last command starting with abc
  • !$
  • Last argument of previous command
  • ALT-.
  • Last argument of previous command
  • !*
  • All arguments of previous command
  • ^abc-^-123
  • Run previous command, replacing abc with 123

Bash Variables

  • env
  • Show enviro-nment variables
  • echo $NAME
  • Output value of $NAME variable
  • export NAME-=v-alue
  • Set $NAME to value
  • $PATH
  • Executable search path
  • $HOME
  • Home directory
  • $SHELL
  • Current shell

IO Redirection

  • cmd < file
  • Input of cmd from file
  • cmd1 <(cmd2
  • Output of cmd2 as file input to cmd1
  • cmd > file
  • Standard output (stdout) of cmd to file
  • cmd
  • Discard stdout of cmd
  • cmd >> file
  • Append stdout to file
  • cmd 2> file
  • Error output (stderr) of cmd to file
  • cmd
  • stdout to same place as stderr
  • cmd
  • stderr to same place as stdout
  • cmd &> file
  • Every output of cmd to file

Pipes

Anchros

  • cmd1 | cmd2
  • stdout of cmd1 to cmd2
  • cmd1 |& cmd2
  • stderr of cmd1 to cmd2

Command Lists

  • cmd1 ; cmd2
  • Run cmd1 then cmd2
  • cmd1 && cmd2
  • Run cmd2 if cmd1 is successful
  • cmd1 || cmd2
  • Run cmd2 if cmd1 is not successful
  • cmd
  • Run cmd in a subshell

Directory Operations

  • pwd
  • Show current directory
  • mkdir dir
  • Make directory dir
  • cd dir
  • Change directory to dir
  • cd ..
  • Go up a directory
  • ls
  • List files

ls Options

  • -a
  • Show all (including hidden)
  • -R
  • Recursive list
  • -r
  • Reverse order
  • -t
  • Sort by last modified
  • -S
  • Sort by file size
  • -l
  • Long listing format
  • -1
  • One file per line
  • -m
  • Comma--sep-arated output
  • -Q
  • Quoted output

Search Files

  • grep pattern files
  • Search for pattern in files
  • grep -i
  • Case insens-itive search
  • grep -r
  • Recursive search
  • grep -v
  • Inverted search
  • grep -o
  • Show matched part of file only
  • find /dir/ -name name*
  • Find files starting with name in dir
  • find /dir/ -user name
  • Find files owned by name in dir
  • find /dir/ -mmin num
  • Find files modifed less than num minutes ago in dir
  • whereis command
  • Find binary / source / manual for command
  • locate file
  • Find file (quick search of system index)

File Operations

  • touch file1
  • Create file1
  • cat file1 file2
  • Concat-enate files and output
  • less file1
  • View and paginate file1
  • file file1
  • Get type of file1
  • cp file1 file2
  • Copy file1 to file2
  • mv file1 file2
  • Move file1 to file2
  • rm file1
  • Delete file1
  • head file1
  • Show first 10 lines of file1
  • tail file1
  • Show last 10 lines of file1
  • tail -f file1
  • Output last lines of file1 as it changes

Process Management

  • ps
  • Show snapshot of processes
  • top
  • Show real time processes
  • kill pid
  • Kill process with id pid
  • pkill name
  • Kill process with name name
  • killall name
  • Kill all processes with names beginning name

Nano Shortcuts

Files

  • Ctrl-R
  • Read file
  • Ctrl-O
  • Save file
  • Ctrl-X
  • Close file

Images

  • ALT-A
  • Start marking text
  • CTRL-K
  • Cut marked text or line
  • CTRL-U
  • Paste text

Navigate File

  • ALT-/
  • End of file
  • CTRL-A
  • Beginning of line
  • CTRL-E
  • End of line
  • CTRL-C
  • Show line number
  • CTRL-_
  • Go to line number

Search File

  • CTRL-W
  • Find
  • ALT-W
  • Find next
  • CTRL-\
  • Search and replace

Screen Shortcuts

  • screen
  • Start a screen session.
  • screen -r
  • Resume a screen session.
  • screen -list
  • Show your current screen sessions.
  • CTRL-A
  • Activate commands for screen.
  • CTRL-A c
  • Create a new instance of terminal.
  • CTRL-A n
  • Go to the next instance of terminal.
  • CTRL-A p
  • Go to the previous instance of terminal.
  • CTRL-A "
  • Show current instances of terminals.
  • CTRL-A A
  • Rename the current instance.

File Permissions

  • 4
  • read (r)
  • 2
  • write (w)
  • 1
  • execute (x)
  • chmod 775 file
  • Change mode of file to 775
  • chmod -R 600 folder
  • Recurs-ively chmod folder to 600
  • chown user-:g-roup file
  • Change file owner to user and group to group

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